Papers by other authors relating to Rupert's work.

Distant intentionality and the feeling of being stared at: Two meta-analyses

British Journal of Psychology, 1 May 2004, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 235-247(13)
by Schmidt S.; Schneider R.; Utts J.; Walach H.
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Findings in parapsychology suggest an effect of distant intentionality. Two laboratory set-ups explored this topic by measuring the effect of a distant intention on psychophysiological variables. The 'Direct Mental Interaction in Living Systems' experiment investigates the effect of various intentions on the electrodermal activity of a remote subject. The 'Remote Staring' experiment examines whether gazing by an observer covaries with the electrodermal activity of the person being observed. Two meta-analyses were conducted. A small significant effect size (d =.11, p = .001) was found in 36 studies on 'direct mental interaction', while a best-evidence-synthesis of 7 studies yielded d = .05 (p = .50). In 15 remote staring studies a mean effect size of d = 0.13 (p = .01) was obtained. It is concluded that there are hints of an effect, but also a shortage of independent replications and theoretical concepts.

Do You Know Who is Calling? Experiments on Anomalous Cognition in Phone Call Receivers

The Open Psychology Journal, 2009, 2, 12-18
by Schmidt S.; Erath D.; Ivanova Vm; Walach H.
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Many people report that they know in advance who is on the phone when the telephone is ringing. Sheldrake and Smart [1, 2] conducted experiments where participants had to determine which one of four possible callers is on the phone while the telephone was still ringing. They report highly significant hit rates that cannot be explained by conventional theories.

We attempted to replicate these findings in a series of three experiments. In study one, 21 participants were asked to identify the callers of 20 phone calls each. Overall 26.7 % were identified correctly (mean chance expectation 25%, ns). In a second study a pre-selection test was introduced in a different experimental setting. Eight participants identified 30% of the calls correctly (p = .15). However one of the participants recognized 10 out of 20 calls correctly (p = .014). We conducted a third study with only this participant. In an additional 60 trials she could identify 24 callers correctly (p = .007). We conclude that we could not find any anomalous cognition effect in self-selected samples. But our data also strongly suggest that there are a few participants who are able to score reliably and repeatedly above chance.

Who's Calling At This Hour? Local Sidereal Time and Telephone Telepathy

by Eva Lobach and Dick J. Bierman, University of Amsterdam
Paper presented at the Parapsychology Association Annual Convention, Vienna, August 2004
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Can we guess who is calling us on the phone before picking up, and does local sidereal time (LST) affect how often we guess right? Reviews of anomalous cognition studies have shown that effect sizes are highest around 13.30 LST (Spottiswoode, 1997). A post-hoc analysis of telephone telepathy data of Sheldrake (2003) also showed a peak at that time. LST (peak or non-peak) was an independent variable in our prospective telephone telepathy study. Six women who indicated they often experienced telephone telepathy were selected to participate. Each participant chose four close friends or relatives to act as callers. All completed a total of 36 trials; six sessions of six trials each, three sessions at peak time (between 8.00 and 9.00 local time) and three at non-peak time (between 17.30 and 18.30 local time). One of the experimenters was at the participant's home during the sessions. The experimenter made sure no irregular communication was going on and logged times of the calls and responses of the participant. At a different location another experimenter used a dice to select a caller about five minutes before the scheduled trial. Then he or she contacted the caller who was asked to call the participant in five minutes and to concentrate his or her thoughts on the participant for the last two minutes before the call was made. When the phone rang at the participant's home, the participant guessed who she thought was calling before picking up. Analyses show a significant over-all scoring rate of 29.4% (p = .05). Almost all of this effect originates from the sessions at peak time with a scoring rate of 34.6%. Exploratory analyses show that a stronger emotional bond between particpant and caller is associated with a higher hitrate. It is concluded that results provide tentative support for the hypothesis that Local Sidereal Time is related to a phenomenon like telephone telepathy. In addition, the results are in support of the existence of telephone telepathy. Other explanations of the anomalous effect cannot be ruled out, such as precognition, retro psychokinesis by the experimenter or the participant so the dice throw would coincide with the particular caller the participant would guess, or clairvoyance of the dice throws. Future studies should aim at teasing apart the supposed effects of LST and local time on 'telephone telepathy.'

Morphic Computing

Applied Soft Computing, Volume 8, Issue 3, June 2008, Pages 1164-1177
by Germano Resconia and Masoud Nikraveshb
Catholic University, Brescia, Italy
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In this paper, we introduce a new type of computation called "morphic computing". Morphic computing is based on field theory and more specifically morphic fields. Morphic fields were first introduced by Rupert Sheldrake [R. Sheldrake, A New Science of Life: The Hypothesis of Morphic Resonance (second edition, 1985), Park Street Press; Reprint edition (March 1, 1995), 1981] from his hypothesis of formative causation that made use of the older notion of morphogenetic fields. Rupert Sheldrake [R. Sheldrake, A New Science of Life: The Hypothesis of Morphic Resonance (second edition, 1985), Park Street Press; Reprint edition (March 1, 1995), 1981] developed his famous theory, morphic resonance, on the basis of the work by French philosopher Henri Bergson. Morphic fields and its subset morphogenetic fields have been at the center of controversy for many years in mainstream science and the hypothesis is not accepted by some scientists who consider it a pseudoscience. We claim that morphic computing is a natural extension of holographic computation, quantum computation, soft computing, and DNA computing. All natural computations bonded by the turing machine can be formalised and extended by our new type of computation model--morphic computing. In this paper, we introduce the basis for this new computing paradigm and its extensions such as quantum logic and entanglement in morphic computing, morphic systems and morphic system of systems (M-SOS). Its applications to the field of computation by words as an example of the morphic computing, morphogenetic fields in neural network and morphic computing, morphic fields - concepts and web search, and agents and fuzzy in morphic computing will also be discussed.

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Selected Peer-Reviewed Journal Publications on Psi Research

A growing list of articles published mostly in the 21st century, plus other resources, compiled by Dean Radin